The COVID-19 pandemic priorities have focused on prevention by detection and response. National governments’ prevention response decisions are based upon detection statistics from PCR tests that are used to define numbers of (i) COVID-19 infected persons, (ii) COVID-19 hospitalisations, and (iii) COVID-19 deaths. These statistics assume a priori that PCR tests are nigh 100% true detectors of COVID-19 infections. Here we will provide an alternative interpretation, along with the compelling evidence, that false positives have distorted to some degree the statistics of the primary outbreaks, and account for almost the whole of the 2nd and subsequent apparent COVID-19 outbreak peaks in various countries.


We extract from the published literature on PCR-test outcomes graphical data that reveals the evidence for a very large percentage of false positive results. We review the role of exosomes in the immune response to all respiratory viral infections and its effect on PCR tests. We hypothesise that exosomes, triggered by all viral respiratory infections, are largely responsible for positive outcomes from PCR- tests for COVID-19. We test our alternative interpretation for consistency with the empirical epidemiological trends as published by WHO.


We find that PCR testing data for the second and following waves of COVID-19 pandemic indicate that these waves are mainly artefacts of false-positive results. We find that this interpretation provides a more consistent explanation of the known epidemiology of COVID-19 than the hitherto consensus notion of extremely contagious and rapidly mutating viruses.


The RNA code counted in PCR tests, previously attributed to SARS- CoV-2, belongs instead to a respiratory-virus-induced immune system response by human cells that liberate exosomes, and that vitiate PCR test results. PCR tests have zero specificity in vivo due to the exosome RNA. PCR tests exhibit excellent specificity in vitro on pure samples of other respiratory viruses. Low success rate of vaccines is explained by inexact identification of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA.

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